Practical Bible Studies

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Deuterocanonical Books Referenced in the New Testament

By Andrew Heckmaster
4/5/21

          The Deuterocanonical[1] books of the Old Testament are referenced or alluded to a number of times in the New Testament books. Below is a list of those passages. It is important to note, from a literary perspective, that you can draw the same line between works like the Iliad[2] and the Bible. Just because a sentence exists in the works of Homer and the works of William Tyndale, does not mean they are a direct reference. Having said that, scripture demands more scrutiny than any other work of antiquity. Every jot and tittle is important.[3]


 

Matthew 2:6                Wisdom 11:7

Matthew 6:19-20        Sirach 29:11

Matthew 7:12              Tobit 4:15

Matthew 7:16, 20        Sirach 27:6

Matthew 9:36              Judith 11:19

Matthew 11:25            Tobit 7:18

Matthew 12:42            Wisdom of Solomon

Matthew 16:18            Wisdom 16:13

Matthew 22:25            Tobit 3:8, 7:11

Matthew 24:15            1 Macc 1:54, 2 Macc 8:17

Matthew 24:16            1 Maccabees 2:28

Matthew 27:43            Wisdom 2:18

Mark 4:4, 16-17          Sirach 40:15

Mark 9:48                   Judith 16:17

Luke 1:52                    Sirach 10:14

Luke 2:29                    Tobit 11:9

Luke 13:29                  Baruch 4:37

Luke 21:24                  Sirach 28:18

Luke 24:4                    2 Maccabees 3:26

John 1:3                      Wisdom 9:1

John 3:13                    Baruch 3:29

John 4:48                    Wisdom 8:8

John 5:18                    Wisdom 2:16

John 6:35-59               Sirach 24:21

John 10:22                  1 Maccabees 4:59

John 10:36                  1 Maccabees 4:36

John 15:6                    Wisdom 4:5

Acts 1:15                    1 Maccabees 3:55

Acts 10:34                  Sirach 35:12

Acts 17:29                  Wisdom 13:10

Romans 1:18-25         Wisdom 13:1-10

Romans 1:24-27         Wisdom 14:12, 24-27

Romans 4:17               Sirach 44:19

Romans 5:12               Wisdom 2:24

Romans 9:21               Wisdom 15:7

1 Corinthians 6:12-13 Sirach 36:18

1 Corinthians 8:5-6     Wisdom 3:13

1 Corinthians 10:1      Wisdom 19:7

1 Corinthians 10:20    Baruch 4:7

1 Corinthians 15:29    2 Maccabees 12:43-45

Ephesians 1:17            Wisdom 7:7

1 Timothy 6:15           2 Maccabees 12:15, 13:4

2 Timothy 4:8             Wisdom 5:16

Hebrews 4:12              Wisdom 18:15

Hebrews 11:5              Wis 4:10, Sira 44:16

Hebrews 11:35            2 Maccabees 7:1-42

Hebrews 12:12            Sirach 25:23

James 1:19                  Sirach 5:11

James 2:23                  1 Maccabees 2:52

James 3:13                  Sirach 3:17

James 5:3                    Sirach 29:10-11

James 5:6                    Wisdom 2:10-20

1 Peter 1:6-7               Wis 3:5-6, Sira 2:5

1 Peter 1:17                 Sirach 16:12

2 Peter 2:7                   Wisdom 10:6

Revelation 1:4            Tobit 12:15

Revelation 1:18          Wisdom 16:13

Revelation 2:12          Wisdom 18:16

Revelation 5:7            Sirach 1:8

Revelation 8:3-4         Tobit 12:12,15

Revelation 8:7            Wis 16:22, Sira 39:29

Revelation 9:3            Wisdom 16:9

Revelation 11:19        2 Maccabees 2:7

Revelation 17:14        2 Maccabees 13:4

Revelation 19:1          Tobit 13:18

Revelation 19:11        2 Maccabees 3:25, 11:18

Revelation 19:16        2 Maccabees 13:4

Revelation 21:19        Tobit 13:17


            The previous list only includes references to books from the Catholic canon. There are no-doubt references from the Orthodox canon books such as 3 and 4 Maccabees. Perhaps that is a task for another paper. One thing that should be noted is that every single New Testament author uses deuterocanonical language except Jude. However, there is one book that is contained within the LXX[4] that is extensively referenced by John, Peter, Jude, and Paul. This book is not contained in any canon with the exception of that of the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church.[5] Below are biblical references and/or allusions to the book of Enoch or 1 Enoch.

 

John 7:38                    

2 Peter 2:4                  

2 Peter 3:13               

Jude 1:4                     

Jude 1:6

Jude 1:13                   

Jude 1:14-15              

1 Corinthians 13:1     

Revelation 6:9-10

 

            These passages represent various stories from 1 Enoch, mostly dealing with things like fallen angels and head coverings. The early church father Tertullian considered Enoch a prophet and 1 Enoch as scripture.[6]

            To conclude, none of this makes these books canon. Paul read from philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, but he never regarded them as scripture. Likewise, Jude could have quoted from Enoch without the book of 1 Enoch being canon. On the other side of the coin, a protestant pastor does not determine what is in the canon either. We must look to ancient sources like the early church fathers and the disciples and make a make a choice based on textual critical principles rather than tradition.


[1] Protestants may use the word “Apocryphal” to describe the deuterocanonical books. Deutero means “secondary” and a “Canon” is a measuring stick. Most Catholics and Orthodox Christians view these books as secondary to standard scripture. A protestant may simply view them as a good set of books to read, yet not scriptural.

[2] Homer, The Iliad of Homer. Rendered into English Prose for the Use of Those Who Cannot Read the Original., ed. Samuel Butler (Medford, MA: Longmans, Green and Co. 39 Paternoster Row, London. New York and Bombay., 1898).

[3] Matthew 5:18

[4] LXX = Septuagint or 70. This is the Greek Old Testament that Jesus and his disciples would have used.

[5] Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (2003). "The Bible." Available online at the Ethiopian Orthodox Church's website. Retrieved 5 February 2021.

[6] Tertullian, “On Idolatry,” in Latin Christianity: Its Founder, Tertullian, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, trans. S. Thelwall, vol. 3, The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Company, 1885), 70.



Bibliography


                    Homer, The Iliad of Homer. Rendered into English Prose for the Use of Those Who Cannot Read the Original., ed. Samuel Butler (Medford, MA: Longmans, Green and Co. 39 Paternoster Row, London. New York and Bombay., 1898).

                   

               Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (2003). "The Bible." Available online at the Ethiopian Church Website Retrieved 5 April 2021.

                   

               Tertullian, “On Idolatry,” in Latin Christianity: Its Founder, Tertullian, ed. Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe, trans. S. Thelwall, vol. 3, The Ante-Nicene Fathers (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Company, 1885), 70.



Further Reading


               Benyamim Tsedaka, ed., The Israelite Samaritan Version of the Torah: First English Translation Compared with the Masoretic Version, trans. Benyamim Tsedaka (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2013)

 

               Theron Mathis, The Rest of the Bible: A Guide to the Old Testament of the Early Church (Chesterton, IN: Ancient Faith Publishing, 2011)

 

               Patrick Henry Reardon, Wise Lives: Orthodox Christian Reflections on the Wisdom of Sirach (Chesterton, IN: Ancient Faith Publishing, 2009)

A List of Popular Bible Translations in Modern English
Protestant- TR & Majority Text-Based
(Mostly Word-for-Word)
Tyndale New Testament (1526)
Coverdale Bible (1535)
Matthew's Bible (1537)
The Great Bible (1539)
Geneva Bible (1560)
Bishops' Bible (1568)
King James Version (1611)
Webster's Bible (1833)
American Standard Version (1901)
World English Bible (2000)
Modern English Version (2014)
Protestant- Critical Text-Based
(Mostly Word-for-Word)
Revised Standard Version (1952)
New American Standard Bible (1971)
New King James Version (1982)
New Revised Standard Version (1989)
English Standard Version (2001)
New Cambridge Paragraph Bible (2005)
Protestant- Critical Text-Based
(Mostly Thought-for-Thought)
New English Bible (1970)
Good News Translations (1976)
New International Version (1978)
New Century Translations (1987)
Revised English Bible (1989)
Contemporary English Version (1995)
New Living Translation (1996)
Holman Christian Standard Bible (2004)
Today's New International Version (2005)
New English Translation (2005)
Christian Standard Bible (2017)
Paraphrased
(Retelling)
The Living Bible (1970)
God's Word (1995)
The Message (2002)
Messianic Jewish
(Traditional Jewish Book Order)
Complete Jewish Bible (1998)
Tree of Life Version (2011)
New Jerusalem Version (2019)
Catholic
(With Apocrypha)
King James Bible w/ Apocrypha (1611)
Jerusalem Bible (1966)
New American Bible (1970)
New Jerusalem Bible (1985)
New Revised Standard Version w/ Apocrypha (1989)
Heretical
(Cult and Non-Believing)
Joseph Smith Translation (1828)
New World Translation (1961)
Clear Word Bible (1994)
The Inclusive Bible (2009)
Queen James Bible (2012)
The Remedy- New Testament (2017)

Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus

           Both Sinaiticus and Vaticanus date to the fourth century AD. Prior to their discovery, modern textual criticism was based on manuscripts that were written in the neighborhood of a thousand years after the events of the New Testament. Remarkably, there aren't that many differences between these texts and the Textus Receptus translation by Erasmus. The most notable would be verses like Mark 16:9-20, John 7:53-8:11, Acts 8:37, and 1 John 5:7 to name a few. The longer ending of Mark may be the reason for many cult denominations like Church of Christ and snake-handling congregations. In any case, these two codices don't stand alone. Many ancient papyri have been discovered since then that agree, and sometimes disagree, with these two manuscripts. Either way, they are a fascinating discovery. 

Sinaiticus

Vaticanus


Textual Basis for 1 Thessalonians
(Possibly Oldest Book of NT)